COVID-19 is an infectious respiratory ailment caused by SARS-CoV-2. It originated in Wuhan, China and falls in the same family of the virus as MERS, SARS and the common cold. It stands for Corona Virus Disease 2019 aka COVID-19. The coronavirus or COVID-19 pandemic began all the way in 2019 and has taken away the last two years from people around the world.
The virus can cause mild to severe effects on humans, and there is a lot of ambiguity about the virus. The virus gets its name from spike proteins with crown shapes on them. It was declared a pandemic in March 2020 after its first case report on 31st December 2019.
The entire world is suffering, and the cause of the virus transmission into humans still remains unknown. The Coronavirus or COVID-19 pandemic is another mystery to the world.
Table of Contents
On 31st December 2019, a case of influenza-like illness got registered in Wuhan. These viruses have spread to humans from the bats in the Wuhan seafood market. It is only a statement without any evidence and needs further investigation.
The hunt for the first case of the Coronavirus or COVID-19 pandemic is still on without any clue.
Another open-ended theory about the virus is that it leaked from a Virus Lab due to an accident.
The first incident of human-to-human transmission dates back to 20th January 2020.
Wuhan’s Seafood market got the confirmation for no initial outbreak after no track of the virus there. Despite multiple incidents and discoveries of the source of the virus, it could not get discovered so far.
Planet Earth has been facing these pandemics and epidemics every now and then. Here is the list
|Name of Pandemic||Time frame||Deaths|
|Ebola epidemic||2014-2016||~ 11,325|
|H1N1 Swine Flu pandemic||2009-2010||~ 575,400|
|Asian Flu||1957-1958||~ 1.1 million|
|Spanish Flu||1918-1920||~ 50 Million|
|AIDS pandemic||1981-present||~ 35 million|
|Flu pandemic||1889-1890||~ 1 Million|
|Great Plague of Marseille||1720-1723||~126,000|
|The Black Death||1346-1353||Half of Europe|
Basic Details of COVID-19
Here are the basic details about the Coronavirus or COVID-19 pandemic;
|Name of the Virus||SARS-CoV-2 |
(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2)
|First Reported case location||Wuhan City, China.|
|The first reported case date||31st December 2019|
|Declared Pandemic on||11th March 2020|
|Similar virus group||Common cold, SARS, MERS|
|Recent mutations||Alpha, Beta, Delta, Kappa |
(UK, Africa, Brazil and Indian variant)
|Infection rate||2 to 6.6 per person|
|Infection fatality rate||0-28% as the age group increase|
|The incubation period of coronavirus||2-14 Days|
|Total Cases worldwide||Over 174,218,155|
|Total death worldwide||Over 3,747,651|
|Total active cases worldwide||Less than 12,844,269|
|Highly affected countries||USA, India, Brazil|
|Vaccines of COVID-19||COVAX, Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca, SinoVac|
|Number of Vaccines in use worldwide||15+|
|Globally Regulating body||World Health Organization (WHO)|
Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
|Real-time case reporting||Worldometer|
Cause and Spread of the Virus
The primary and sole cause of COVID-19 is the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It gets transmitted from person to person through direct contact. It’s n airborne disease that can transfer via air and aerosols.
The newly discovered virus spread from close contact with people or things that has the virus on them. It can include touching, shaking hands or even simply speaking with an infected person from under 6 feet gap. The respiratory droplets are the bearer of the virus during close contact. These viruses enter the body through the nose, mouth and eyes to multiply themselves in the mucous membranes. Then they propagate to the lungs and infect the human body.
Symptoms or Effects of COVID-19
People all around the world have been reporting different symptoms with varying intensities. There are symptoms other than those on the list below. However, the list includes all the relevant symptoms reported worldwide.
- High Fever – 99%
- Dry Cough – 59%
- Chest pain
- Breathing issues
- Fatigue – 70%
- Body aches
- Pink eye
- Organ failure
- Blood clots
- Loss of senses of taste or smell
- Sore throat
- Nose congestion
- Nausea and vomiting
- Added infection from other microorganisms like Black Fungus.
People with raised prospects of COVID-19 include
- People with the weak immune system and heart ailments
- Pregnant women and old age people
- Those with Obesity, Smoking habits or Cancer
- People with Kidney ailments, Diabetes, and COPD
- People with recent travel history
- Those living in densely populated regions
- People with exposure to local transit
- People within areas of improper healthcare facilities.
Virus Active time on different surfaces
- Wood – 4 days
- Plastic – 2-3 days
- Metal – 5-9 days
- Glass – 5 Days
- Ceramics – 5 Days
- Paper – 5 Days
- Stainless steel – 2-3 days
- Cardboard – 24 Hours
- Copper – 4 hours
- Aluminium – 2-8 hours
Myths and Misconceptions of the Virus
- Yes, you can get the viral infection again after being infected earlier in a rare case scenario.
- No, not only N95 masks but multiple layers of any mask can prevent the virus from leaving or entering the body.
- No, vaccines are not harmful. They are to help just like other vaccines with a small percentage of ineffectiveness.
- Yes, you can get the virus and still show no symptoms as it can be asymptomatic for some.
- No, getting the virus does not mean you would die or get hospitalised. Over 90% of infected people around the world have recovered.
- Yes, you should, and you must practice the guidelines set by the government to stop spreading the virus. You may get infected, and maybe you don’t fall under the 90% recovery rate of people.
- No, a sanitiser with less than 60% alcohol may not be able to remove the virus from your hands.
- No, the virus does not transmit from food, water, breast milk, urine or faeces.
- Yes, following hygienic practices and governmental rules can protect you from getting infected by the virus.
- No, the virus does not transfer to the baby during pregnancy, except in a few reported cases.
Precaution and prevention
Sometimes asymptomatic, this virus can disperse from you to others before conferring any symptoms to you. Hence follow these measures to stay safe.
- Maintain social distancing of Six feet always.
- Avoid shaking hands with people.
- Cover your nose and mouth with a 3-ply mask or any suitable mask, especially while sneezing.
- Avoid touching your face, eyes, nose and mouth.
- Make proper use of Sanitiser regularly.
- Wash your hands with soap and water for 20 seconds.
- Stay at home and follow governmental guidelines to tackle the virus.
- Isolate yourself if you feel like having the virus from someone or something.
- Maintain distancing and sanitisation inside the home as well.
- Do not wander outside without any reason.
- In case of any symptoms, get medical advice and isolate yourself.
- Have rest and plenty of fluids if you have a fever.
- Avoid immunity-suppressing activities like smoking and more.
- Try breathing exercises and Yoga if you feel breathless.
- Manage cough and cold with warm beverages and home remedies.
- Maintain immunity with regular exercise, proper diet and sufficient rest.
Diagnosis of Virus
After some general enquiries about your symptoms, the health worker takes a swab specimen from your throat and nose for a laboratory test.
In any case, if you feel the symptoms or get close to an infected person- it is recommendable to take the test.
There can be false-negative results of your tests if tested early or improper swab specimens were collected. You can choose to self-isolate if you tested false-negative and still have symptoms.
There are the following tests available for practice
RDT (Rapid diagnostic tests) was one of the preliminary antibody test methods that were used to detect the virus. The reports illustrated that the tests do not detect active infection but rather inform us about a person’s immunity to the virus. Hence, the technique is used less widely.
RT-PCR (Real-Time Reverse transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction) are the most accurate and widely used method to detect virus in the human body. The process begins with taking a swab sample from the nose and throat of an infected person and performing a lab test on it. Besides some false positives and false negatives, these reports are highly effective in the detection of the virus.
Isolation and Quarantine tips
The Coronavirus or COVID-19 pandemic can be contained with proper isolation of the infected and quarantine of the prospects. Here are some tips for the same,
- If tested positive, you should isolate yourself for at least 10 days unless your symptoms have gone.
- Always mandate to stay in a separate room for self-quarantine and follow strict guidelines.
- Self-isolation should be accompanied by social distancing and sanitisation if private rooms are unavailable.
- Stay in touch with your friends and family on social media apps for the time you are infected to avoid physical interaction.
- Avoid travelling and work from home.
Treatment of Coronavirus
With no proper treatments available for this new virus, the treatment includes antiviral medication, immunotherapy, Ventilation and
Remdesivir is the only FDA-approved treatment for COVID-19. Remdesivir accompanied with oral steroids under a controlled environment was supposedly treating the virus. However, with recent studies, redeliver has also been proven to be ineffective in treating the virus.
Hydroxychloroquine was considered as a treatment for the virus when taken along with Azithromycin. However, these antiviral drugs got discontinued quickly due to their ineffectiveness and side effects.
Plasma Therapy has recently been held for lacking effective results of the process. It was a process of convalescent plasma transfusion to the infected from one who recovered recently. The treatment had some proven results but was not 100% effective.
Other medications like Lopinavir, Ivermectin, Casirivimab and Imdevimab came into use at some point in time but, none of these was effective.
|Vaccine Name||Type||Country||Efficacy and usage|
|Moderna – mRNA-1273||Genetic||USA||95%, 28 days gap|
|Pfizer BioNTech – Comirnaty||Genetic||USA Germany||91.3%, 21 days gap|
|Johnson & Johnson||Viral vector||USA||67-85%, Single shot|
|AstraZeneca – Vaxzevria||Viral vector||UK||76%, two shots|
|Novavax||Proteins||UK||50-96%, 21 days|
|Sputnik Light||Viral vector||Russia||N/A|
|Sputnik V||Viral vector||Russia||91.6%, 21 days|
|Covaxin||Inactivated virus||India||78%, 28 days|
|BBIBP-CorV||Inactivated virus||China||78.1%, 21 days|
|Convidecia||Viral vector||China||65.28%, one shot|
|Sinovac||Inactivated virus||China||50-90%, 14 days|
|Sinopharm-WIBP||Inactivated virus||China||72.8% 14 days|
Coronavirus world updates
The Coronavirus or COVID-19 pandemic has taken the world by storm with millions of infections and deaths. Here are some statistics of major countries and the world in the context of COVID-19 infections;
With almost 2 positives out of every 3 tests, Nepal had been suffering a great deal of pandemic with the world. However, with the downfall of the infection graph, the number of infections in Nepal is also going down.
India is amongst the most hardly hit nation that had to suffer a huge loss in the economy and its citizen. Nationwide lockdown implementation on time had saved India from the first wave however the second wave was tough to handle. India is also witnessing a huge surge in daily infections from 400,000 to nearly 100,000 per day. Here is a single-day statistic for India and COVID-19.
COVID was a nightmare, but it offers lifetime pedagogy of being with your family and the need for caring for planet EARTH.